بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم على رسول الله وعلى آله وأصحابه ومن اهتدى بهديه إلى يوم الدين
In-Depth Introduction, a Clearer Perspective – Part II
[For part I, please click here.]
Background in Perspective
As mentioned before that this Surah was revealed by 9AH, towards the end of the time of the Prophet salalahu ‘alayhi wasalam. This was after the city of Madinah had been settled and the safety as well as the security, in addition to its sanctity, had been established. Makkah had been conquered and the neighbouring regions had begun to enter Islam. This is why 9AH was also called the year of convoys/caravanas/delegations because tribes came in multitude to pledge allegiance to Rasulalah salalahu ‘alyhi wasalam and left back to their regions to teach their people about Islam. Thus with an increase in the Muslim community members, there was an immediate need to teach Muslims what their conduct should be amongst each other. Surat’l Hujraat is therefore known as the Surah of Moral Ethics. It can not only be used in a Muslim state but also in big/small Musalahs/masjids/organizations and in my opinion, even in our households inshaa’Allah.
[Quranic Gem # 1] Coherence of the Quraan
One of the miracles of the Quraan is its perfect coherence, ayah to ayah, surah to surah. SubhanAllah! Surat’l Hujraat is Surah # 49 and before it are two Surahs, Surat Muhammad (#47) and Surat’l Fat-H (#48); each placing an emphasis on the Prophet salalahu ‘alayhi wasalam. Now, who would’ve thought such coherence was maintained especially since the ayaat of different Surahs were revealed at different times from different Surahs?! It can definitely cannot be a work of human! Allahu Akbar.
- Surat Muhammad: describes the qualities of Rasulalah salalahu ‘alayhi wasalam
- Surat’l Fat-H: talks about the loyalty and allegiance Muslims should have to Rasulalah salalahu ‘alayhi wasalam at the time of war. In general, Islamic history had period of war before peace. There was this struggle to establish themselves first and even within this struggle, they were expected to interact in a proper manner with the Prophet salalahu ‘alayhi wasalam. They were expected to show proper devotion to him even in life-threatening situations.
- Surat’l Hujraat: In Surat’l Fat-H we were told that we are supposed to respect and honor the Prophet salalahu ‘alayhi wasalam. In Hujraat, we’re told how we’re supposed to respect him salalahu ‘alayhi wasalam. Surat’l Hujraat goes in much more detail to tell us what exactly is expected of us.
[Quranic Gem # 2] Interesting Link between Surat’l Fat-H and Surat’l Hujuraat
Surat’l Fat-H ends with ‘…وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا…’ in ayah # 29 as highlighted below with Allah SWT promising those who believe with forgiveness and a great reward. Surat’l Hujraat begins with ‘… الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا…’ and the believers have been addressed (يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا) five times. Since in the previous Surah Allah SWT has already told us what the reward will be, a true Muslim will then have the eagerness to find out as to what is that I should do to become eligible for such an amazing reward. SubhanAllah. Who knows the human being better than Allah SWT? Guess what? Allah SWT has gifted us with Surat’l Hujraat to answer this question precisely that occurs in a believer’s mind for this Surah does exactly that; it expounds on what the يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا category people should do. As a result, a very frequent direct address of five times in this Surah. Who said this Deen was confusing? All the answers are in the Quraan!
[Quranic Gem # 3] Another Link: The Mention of Reward
Also, to further cement and confirm the notion that there is a link and reward, Allah SWT has used the same words: at the end of Surat’l Fat-H and in ayah # 3 of Surat’l Hujraat (how amazing is that! Allahu akbar!) :
- Surat’l Hujraat is 18 verses long with 5 times Allah SWT directly addressing the believers as يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا. This is the most frequent address if one compares the no. of verses to the no. of times يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا mentioned ratio of other Surahs. The 6th address is يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ.
- Each time Allah SWT says يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا, a major topic is addressed. Therefore, there are 5 major topics or guidelines which are addressed.
- This is a Surah outlining social conduct. Taqwa or God-consciousness has been closely and explicitly linked to eeman (يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا) indicating to us that those who have eeman have a special dignified way of conducting themselves socially and that brings about Taqwa. This dispels the myth that many Muslims have in which they believe that their social conduct has nothing to do with their Deen.
Structure of the Surah
- 5 topics are addressed as follows:
- How we should deal with our religion. How do I behave with my Deen?
- How should we behave with Rasulalah salalahu ‘alayhi wasalam? This is applicable to when he was alive and even today.
- How should we deal with the circulating information in our community?
- How should we deal with believers when face-to-face?
- How should we deal with the Muslims in their absence>
- The Surah talks about the collective responsibility of the Muslim community at the time of difficulty and internal conflicts.
- It also talks about the Muslim community’s interaction with the outside world for obviously, we are not the only ones on this planet.
- The key issues revolve around eeman.
And Allah SWT knows best. Next part coming soon inshaa’Allah.
[From: My notes on Sh. AbdulNasir Jangda’s series on Surat’l Hujraat. I have finally decided to use them as a companion to Dr. Bilal Philip’s book inshaa’Allah. For part I, please click here.]